This study was conducted to explore the diversity of charcoal production and to document the current production activities. A household survey was conducted in the month of March 2012 in the locality Kosing. The following charcoal producers were interviewed by using a questionnaire: two experienced charcoal makers with an average production volume of over 80 bags/year each, one less experienced charcoal maker with an average production volume of over 50 bags/year each, and one charcoal maker with an average production volume of less than 30 bags/year each. The questionnaire elicited important information regarding the producing tools used as well as the production process. Most of the charcoal makers form the charcoal through the handcraft of making charcoal mud and one of the experienced charcoal makers said that bevel iron is the best tool that he uses. In addition to handcrafting, the use of a paddle or shovel was used to make the charcoal mud and this process was manual. Other tools such as a hand mill on a grass slope, pumice stones and a log or wattle-and-daub were mentioned as other tools used in making the charcoal mud. The most common producing method for charcoal is called the “twigless” method in which the charcoal mud is already formed and is shaped manually. The charcoal mud is either stored in bamboo tubes for aging or it is stored in a pit. Approximately 5-10% of the charcoal produced is exported and sold to commercial facilities and the rest is consumed by the local charcoal makers.
Such investigations of wood fumes, especially in the wood treatment works of PG-ANU, as well as in the woodsmoke-caused weather conditions of Adelaide and the aurora borealis displays, are carried out to describe the source and composition of wood smoke. The results indicate that the effect of the atmospheric conditions, especially the SSA/MW, is concurrent with the number of hours of night, longer periods of high SSA and MW conditions corresponding to increased visibility, and these conditions are also associated with increasing wind speeds. The daily hours of sun time are not significantly related to the effect of woodsmoke, however, the temperature, SSA/MW and visibility are significantly related. d2c66b5586